Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent (NADES) Extraction Improves Polyphenol Yield and Antioxidant Activity of Wild Thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) Extracts

Branimir Pavlić, Živan Mrkonjić, Nemanja Teslić, Aleksandra Cvetanović Kljakić, Milica Pojić, Anamarija Mandić, Alena Stupar, Filipa Santos, Ana Rita C. Duarte, Aleksandra Mišan

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31 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) herbal dust has been recognized as a potential underutilized resource for the recovery of antioxidants. The aim of this paper was to optimize natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) extraction of polyphenols to obtain improved antioxidant activity of extracts determined by selected in vitro assays (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS). Twenty different NADES systems were investigated in the first step of the screening of the extraction solvent and L-proline (Pro)–glycerine (Gly) based solvents provided the best results. Preliminary experiments organized by 25−1 fractional factorial design narrowed down the number of extraction factors from five (temperature, extraction time, NADES type, water content and L/S ratio) to three and determined their experimental domain for the final step. A face-centered central composite design with temperature (40–55–70 °C), extraction time (60–120–180 min) and L/S ratio (10–20–30 g NADES/g sample) was applied for influence analysis and process optimization. Multi-response optimization suggested a temperature of 65 °C, time of extraction of 180 min and L/S ratio of 28 g NADES/g DW as optimal extraction parameters. Experimental validation confirmed good agreement between experimental and predicted results in the extract obtained at optimal conditions and the interactions in the most suitable NADES (N16; Pro–Gly–H2O; 1:2:1) were confirmed by the1H-NMR.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1508
Number of pages20
JournalMolecules
Volume27
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Antioxidant activity
  • NADES
  • Polyphenols
  • RSM optimization
  • Thymus serpyllum L

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