Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD) is caused by species of Mycosphaerella and several anamorphic form genera that have been connected to Mycosphaerella. Until recently, MLD of eucalypts was largely ignored in Portugal. However, serious damage to Eucalyptus globulus has been reported since 1999 when frequent and severe defoliation of young trees was observed. The severity of this disease prompted a preliminary study of the Mycosphaerella species associated with major symptoms of a leaf blotch disease in commercial plantations of E. globulus in Portugal, which is presented here. The species were identified by molecular methods based on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 cluster, together with morphological characters. In addition to confirming the species previously recorded, Mycosphaerella vespa is reported for the first time from Portugal, while the status of Mycosphaerella grandis remains to be resolved.