Multi-mycotoxin analysis using dried blood spots and dried serum spots

Bernd Osteresch, Susana Viegas , Benedikt Cramer, Hans Ulrich Humpf

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41 Citations (Scopus)
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In this study, a rapid multi-mycotoxin approach was developed for biomonitoring and quantification of 27 important mycotoxins and mycotoxin metabolites in human blood samples. HPLC-MS/MS detection was used for the analysis of dried serum spots (DSS) and dried blood spots (DBS). Detection of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, DON; DON-3-glucoronic acid, DON-3-GlcA; T-2; HT-2; and HT-2-4-GlcA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxins (OTA and its thermal degradation product 2’R-OTA; OTα; 10-hydroxychratoxin A, 10-OH-OTA), citrinin (CIT and its urinary metabolite dihydrocitrinone, DH-CIT), zearalenone and zearalanone (ZEN, ZAN), altenuene (ALT), alternariols (AOH; alternariol monomethyl ether, AME), enniatins (EnA, EnA1, EnB, EnB1) and beauvericin (Bea) was validated for two matrices, serum (DSS), and whole blood (DBS). HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed signal suppression as well as signal enhancement due to matrix effects. However, for most analytes LOQs in the lower pg/mL range and excellent recovery rate were achieved using matrix-matched calibration. Besides validation of the method, the analyte stability in DBS and DSS was also investigated. Stability is a main issue for some analytes when the dried samples are stored under common conditions at room temperature. Nevertheless, the developed method was applied to DBS samples of a German cohort (n = 50). Besides positive findings of OTA and 2’R-OTA, all samples were positive for EnB. This methodical study establishes a validated multi-mycotoxin approach for the detection of 27 mycotoxins and metabolites in dried blood/serum spots based on a fast sample preparation followed by sensitive HPLC-MS/MS analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3369-3382
Number of pages14
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017


  • Biomonitoring
  • Dried blood spot
  • Dried serum spot
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Mycotoxin


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