Multi-depot vehicle routing problem: a comparative study of alternative formulations

Tânia Rodrigues Pereira Ramos, Maria Isabel Gomes, Ana Paula Barbosa Póvoa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a two-commodity flow formulation for the MDVRP considering a heterogeneous vehicle fleet and maximum routing time. Its computational performance is compared to a traditional formulation, the so called three-index formulation, which is adapted to fit the same problem. With the creation of subtours being a problem within such formulations, four alternative sets of constraints are considered to eliminate them: the Dantzig–Fulkerson–Johnson constraint, the Miller–Tucker–Zemlin constraint, the transit load constraint, and the arrival time constraint. The resulting mixed-integer linear programming models are then applied to a number of benchmark instances and the obtained performance results are compared.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Logistics Research and Applications
Issue number2
Early online date1 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • MILP
  • Multi-depot
  • subtour elimination
  • vehicle routing


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