A multi-analytical approach was used to study the pictorial layers of a set of 17th century historic glazed tiles (azulejos) of Portuguese manufacture. The pictorial layer was studied by μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman, SEM-EDS and OM. Although the established palette comprises few pigments, it was found that the tiles were enhanced by the use of pigment mixtures, which were identified by μ-Raman and μ-EDXRF. As expected, the blue colour derives from cobalt oxide, purple from manganese oxide and emerald-green from copper oxide. Regarding the yellow pigment, μ-Raman results show it is consistent with the composition of a ternary oxide, whereas μ-EDXRF shows a high intensity of Zn in this colour, indicating a composition close to a Pb-Sb-Zn ternary oxide. Some compounds from the original ores were also indentified: in two very dark blue samples, cobalt and nickel olivines (α-Co2SiO4, α-Ni2SiO4), and in a dark brown sample, braunite (a manganese silicate).
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Journal of the European Ceramic Society|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2012|
- Naples Yellow
- Glazed tiles
- Glaze analysis
Coentro, S., Mimoso, J. M., Lima, A. M., Silva, A. S., Pais, A. N., & Muralha, V. S. F. (2012). Multi-analytical identification of pigments and pigment mixtures used in 17th century Portuguese azulejos. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 32(1), 37-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2011.07.021