Migration is associated with HIV-1 vulnerability. Objectives: To identify long-term trends in HIV-1 molecular epidemiology and antiretroviral drug resistance (ARV) among migrants followed up in Portugal Methods: 5177 patients were included between 2001 and 2017. Rega, Scuel, Comet, and jPHMM algorithms were used for subtyping. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and Acquired drug resistance (ADR) were defined as the presence of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) and as mutations of the IAS-USA 2015 algorithm, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: HIV-1 subtypes infecting migrants were consistent with the ones prevailing in their countries of origin. Over time, overall TDR significantly increased and specifically for Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) andNucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTIs). TDR was higher in patients from Mozambique. Country of origin Mozambique and subtype B were independently associated with TDR. Overall, ADR significantly decreased over time and specifically for NRTIs and Protease Inhibitors (PIs). Age, subtype B, and viral load were independently associated with ADR. Conclusions: HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in migrants suggests high levels of connectivity with their country of origin. The increasing levels of TDR in migrants could indicate an increase also in their countries of origin, where more efficient surveillance should occur.
- HIV drug resistance mutations
- Molecular epidemiology
- SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-Being