Modelling green and lean supply chains: An eco-efficiency perspective

Helena Carvalho, Kannan Govindan, Susana G. Azevedo, Virgílio António Cruz Machado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

124 Citations (Scopus)


This manuscript proposes a model to support decision making and to help managers identify the best set of green and lean supply chain management practices to improve their eco-efficiency. To attain this objective, a mathematical model based on eco-efficiency concepts is suggested to overcome the trade-offs between lean and green practices. To illustrate the model application, a case study from an automotive supply chain is presented. Some management practices that are instituted for green or lean benefits have opposite effects on the environmental and economic performance of companies. One of the main findings of our study is that not all companies belonging to the same supply chain can be absolutely lean or green. There should be compromises in the individual companies’ behaviour so the environmental and economic constraints of the supply chain are both satisfied. The proposed model represents a strategic framework to support the design of eco-efficient supply chains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-87
Number of pages13
JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
Publication statusPublished - May 2017


  • Eco-efficiency
  • Green
  • Lean
  • Linear programming model
  • Supply chain


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