Microstructure and mechanical properties of gas metal arc welded CoCrFeMnNi joints using a 410 stainless steel filler metal

Jiajia Shen, Rita Gonçalves, Yeon Taek Choi, J. G. Lopes, Jin Yang, N. Schell, Hyoung Seop Kim, J. P. Oliveira

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41 Citations (Scopus)
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The use of filler materials during fusion-based welding processes is widely used to regulate and modify the composition of the welded joints aiming at producing a desired microstructure and/or achieving an improvement in its mechanical performance. Welding of high entropy alloys is still a new topic and the impact of different filler materials on the microstructure and mechanical properties is yet unknown. In this work, gas metal arc welding of the CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy using 410 stainless steel as a filler wire was performed. The microstructural evolution of the welded joints was evaluated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy aided by electron backscattered diffraction, high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic calculations. Meanwhile, the mechanical behavior of the welded joint, as well as the local mechanical response were investigated with microhardness mapping measurements and with non-contact digital image correlation during tensile loading to failure. The weld thermal cycle promoted solid state reactions in the heat affected zone (recovery, recrystallization and grain growth), which impacted the microhardness across the joint. The role of the 410 stainless steel filler material in the solidification path experienced by the fusion zone was evaluated using Scheil-Gulliver calculations, and a good agreement with the experimentally observed phases was observed. Despite the addition of the 410 stainless steel filler was not conducive to an increase in the fusion zone hardness, the associated bead reinforcement promoted an improvement in both the yield and tensile strengths of the joint compared to a similar weld obtained without filler material (355 vs 284 MPa and 641 vs 519 MPa, respectively). This allows to infer that the addition of filler materials for welding high entropy alloys is a viable method for the widespread use of these novel materials. In this work, by coupling microstructure and mechanical property characterization, a correlation between the processing conditions, microstructure and mechanical properties was obtained providing a wider basis for promoting the application of gas metal arc welding of high entropy alloys for industrial applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number144025
Number of pages18
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering A
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2022


  • CoCrFeMnNi high Entropy alloy
  • Digital image correlation
  • ER410-NiMo stainless steel filler wire
  • Gas metal arc welding
  • Mechanical testing
  • Synchrotron X-ray diffraction
  • Thermodynamic calculations


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