Microbial deterioration of gelatin emulsion photographs: Differences of susceptibility between black and white and colour materials

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Abstract

Microbial deterioration is a common problem in photographic collections, and has been considered a major cause of deterioration. However, few studies have been carried out on this topic, and most of the literature concerns biodeterioration of archival documents in general, including both micro- and macroorganisms. There have been no detailed studies on the interactions between microorganisms, environment, and the composition of photographic material. This study focuses on fungal deterioration of gelatin emulsion photographs. It was part of a study of three collections in Lisbon, Portugal. The first part is quantitative research on the fungal contamination of the Horacio Novais collection, and the second involves induced contamination of experiments on gelatin emulsion photographs. At the end these data are analysed, taking into account the hypothesis that colour materials are more susceptible to fungal deterioration than are black and white ones. This hypothesis is based on the observations of professionals working with photograph collections who report that, at least in plastic base supports (negatives and slides), colour materials are frequently more contaminated than the black and white ones. An overall look at the results seems to indicate a higher susceptibility of the colour chromogenic photographic materials to fungal colonization compared to the black and white materials. However, this hypothesis could not be absolutely confirmed by this study. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageUnknown
Pages (from-to)496-502
JournalInternational Biodeterioration & Biodegradation
Volume63
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009

Cite this

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title = "Microbial deterioration of gelatin emulsion photographs: Differences of susceptibility between black and white and colour materials",
abstract = "Microbial deterioration is a common problem in photographic collections, and has been considered a major cause of deterioration. However, few studies have been carried out on this topic, and most of the literature concerns biodeterioration of archival documents in general, including both micro- and macroorganisms. There have been no detailed studies on the interactions between microorganisms, environment, and the composition of photographic material. This study focuses on fungal deterioration of gelatin emulsion photographs. It was part of a study of three collections in Lisbon, Portugal. The first part is quantitative research on the fungal contamination of the Horacio Novais collection, and the second involves induced contamination of experiments on gelatin emulsion photographs. At the end these data are analysed, taking into account the hypothesis that colour materials are more susceptible to fungal deterioration than are black and white ones. This hypothesis is based on the observations of professionals working with photograph collections who report that, at least in plastic base supports (negatives and slides), colour materials are frequently more contaminated than the black and white ones. An overall look at the results seems to indicate a higher susceptibility of the colour chromogenic photographic materials to fungal colonization compared to the black and white materials. However, this hypothesis could not be absolutely confirmed by this study. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "films, fungal, bacteria, biodegradation, media, contamination, Fungi, Gelatin, emulsion, Photographs, growth, Induced, cinematographic",
author = "Sampaio, {Jos{\'e} Paulo Nunes de Sousa}",
year = "2009",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ibiod.2008.10.011",
language = "Unknown",
volume = "63",
pages = "496--502",
journal = "International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation",
issn = "0964-8305",
publisher = "Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Microbial deterioration of gelatin emulsion photographs: Differences of susceptibility between black and white and colour materials

AU - Sampaio, José Paulo Nunes de Sousa

PY - 2009/1/1

Y1 - 2009/1/1

N2 - Microbial deterioration is a common problem in photographic collections, and has been considered a major cause of deterioration. However, few studies have been carried out on this topic, and most of the literature concerns biodeterioration of archival documents in general, including both micro- and macroorganisms. There have been no detailed studies on the interactions between microorganisms, environment, and the composition of photographic material. This study focuses on fungal deterioration of gelatin emulsion photographs. It was part of a study of three collections in Lisbon, Portugal. The first part is quantitative research on the fungal contamination of the Horacio Novais collection, and the second involves induced contamination of experiments on gelatin emulsion photographs. At the end these data are analysed, taking into account the hypothesis that colour materials are more susceptible to fungal deterioration than are black and white ones. This hypothesis is based on the observations of professionals working with photograph collections who report that, at least in plastic base supports (negatives and slides), colour materials are frequently more contaminated than the black and white ones. An overall look at the results seems to indicate a higher susceptibility of the colour chromogenic photographic materials to fungal colonization compared to the black and white materials. However, this hypothesis could not be absolutely confirmed by this study. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - Microbial deterioration is a common problem in photographic collections, and has been considered a major cause of deterioration. However, few studies have been carried out on this topic, and most of the literature concerns biodeterioration of archival documents in general, including both micro- and macroorganisms. There have been no detailed studies on the interactions between microorganisms, environment, and the composition of photographic material. This study focuses on fungal deterioration of gelatin emulsion photographs. It was part of a study of three collections in Lisbon, Portugal. The first part is quantitative research on the fungal contamination of the Horacio Novais collection, and the second involves induced contamination of experiments on gelatin emulsion photographs. At the end these data are analysed, taking into account the hypothesis that colour materials are more susceptible to fungal deterioration than are black and white ones. This hypothesis is based on the observations of professionals working with photograph collections who report that, at least in plastic base supports (negatives and slides), colour materials are frequently more contaminated than the black and white ones. An overall look at the results seems to indicate a higher susceptibility of the colour chromogenic photographic materials to fungal colonization compared to the black and white materials. However, this hypothesis could not be absolutely confirmed by this study. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KW - films

KW - fungal

KW - bacteria

KW - biodegradation

KW - media

KW - contamination

KW - Fungi

KW - Gelatin

KW - emulsion

KW - Photographs

KW - growth

KW - Induced

KW - cinematographic

U2 - 10.1016/j.ibiod.2008.10.011

DO - 10.1016/j.ibiod.2008.10.011

M3 - Article

VL - 63

SP - 496

EP - 502

JO - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation

JF - International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation

SN - 0964-8305

IS - 4

ER -