Micro-QuEChERS extraction coupled to GC–MS for a fast determination of Bisphenol A in human urine

Luísa Correia-Sá, Sónia Norberto, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Conceição Calhau, Valentina F. Domingues

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


Bisphenol A (BPA) is considered an endocrine disruptor and public concern over BPA exposure has been raised. Several studies have assessed human exposure to this plasticizer, confirming its ubiquitous presence and highlighting children as a public of special concern. A simple, efficient, cheap and green analytical procedure is reported within this paper. This paper reports, for the first time, the development of a modified Micro-QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) as a new strategy for the efficient extraction and determination of Bisphenol A in human urine samples. Several parameters that are known to influence extraction were optimized. Good linearity was achieved at the studied concentration range (1–50 μg/L), with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.998. The optimized method proved to be accurate (≥74% recovery), reproducible (<11% relative standard deviation) and sensitive for BPA determination (detection limit of 0.13 μg/L and quantification limit of 0.43 μg/L). The analytical procedure was applied to the analyses of 12 urine samples collected from children living in the North/Center region of Portugal. BPA was detected in all the analyzed samples in concentrations ranging from 1.5 μg/L to 48.9 μg/L. The proposed methodology is suitable for the determination of BPA in urine samples in the framework of biomonitoring studies and bioanalytical analyses, applying GC–MS detection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-16
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018


  • Bisphenol A
  • Children
  • GC–MS
  • Human urine
  • Micro-QuEChERS


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