Metaphyseal sleeves in revision total knee arthroplasties: Computational analysis of bone remodeling

Pedro Nogueira, João Folgado, Carlos Quental, João Gamelas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Metaphyseal sleeves help maintain long term stability and reduce revision rate for aseptic loosening in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision. However, their performance regarding bone remodeling is still poorly known for the long term. This study aimed to investigate the impact of metaphyseal sleeves on the bone remodeling of the tibia. Methods: Five finite element models of a female tibia with different implant configurations (regarding stem length and metaphyseal sleeve application) were developed. Loading conditions included joint reaction force, muscle, and tibia-fibula loads from 6 instances of the gait cycle. The bone remodeling model applied was adapted to the subject under analysis by selecting the bone remodeling parameters that best replicated the bone density distribution of the tibia estimated from the CT data. Changes in bone density after TKA were evaluated in 8 regions of interest. Results: Global bone loss ranged from −31.16%, in 115 mm stemmed configurations, to −20.93%, in 75 mm stemmed configurations. Apart from the lateral and posterior regions in the proximal tibia, whose bone loss reduced and increased, respectively, due to the incorporation of a metaphyseal sleeve, changes in bone density were similar with and without a metaphyseal sleeve for each stem length. Conclusion: The results suggest that bone remodeling of the tibia is not critically affected by the incorporation of metaphyseal sleeves. Considering that sleeves are believed to present a favorable clinical outcome in stability and osseointegration, reducing the revision rate for aseptic loosening, their advantages seem to outweigh their disadvantages regarding bone remodeling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-19
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Bone remodeling
  • Finite element method
  • Metaphyseal sleeve
  • Revision knee arthroplasty
  • Stress shielding


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