Plants are generally well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Even though they have notably prospered in our planet, stressful conditions such as salinity, drought and cold or heat, which are increasingly being observed worldwide in the context of the ongoing climate changes, limit their growth and productivity. Behind the remarkable ability of plants to cope with these stresses and still thrive, sophisticated and efficient mechanisms to re-establish and maintain ion and cellular homeostasis are involved. Among the plant arsenal to maintain homeostasis are efficient stress sensing and signaling mechanisms, plant cell detoxification systems, compatible solute and osmoprotectant accumulation and a vital rearrangement of solute transport and compartmentation. The key role of solute transport systems and signaling proteins in cellular homeostasis is addressed in the present work. The full understanding of the plant cell complex defense mechanisms under stress may allow for the engineering of more tolerant plants or the optimization of cultivation practices to improve yield and productivity, which is crucial at the present time as food resources are progressively scarce.