Mechanistic insights into the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO on Ni(salphen) complexes

S. Realista, Paulo J. Costa, Luísa Maia, Maria José Calhorda, Paulo N. Martinho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Downloads (Pure)


Cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis showed that [Ni(ii)(salphen)] [1], [Ni(ii)(tBu-salphen)] [2], and a binuclear Ni(ii) compound combining salphen and tBu-salphen [3] react with CO2 to yield a metal-carbonyl species that is stable under an oxygen free atmosphere. Upon exposure to air, a stoichiometric amount of CO is released (detected by gas chromatography) and protonation regenerates the initial complex. To shed light on the mechanism of CO2 reduction and O2-dependent CO release by [1], UV-vis, EPR and SEC-IR spectroscopy studies complemented with DFT calculations were performed. It is proposed that the mono reduced [Ni(i)(salphen)]−, 2[1]−, formed a CO2 complex, 2[1(CO2)]−, which was then further reduced to 3[1(CO2)]2−. After addition of two protons, the coordinated CO2 was reduced to CO and released, regenerating 1[1]. Alternatively, 2[1(CO2)]− is protonated and then reduced to the same intermediate as before, continuing the same way. In the second cycle, the CO released competed with CO2 and coordinated to 2[1]− much more strongly, thereby deactivating the system. The new 2[1(CO)]− was reduced to 3[1(CO)]2− which was identified by comparison of experimental spectroscopic (UV-vis, EPR, SEC-IR) data with DFT calculated parameters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4175–4189
Number of pages15
JournalInorganic Chemistry Frontiers
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


Dive into the research topics of 'Mechanistic insights into the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO on Ni(salphen) complexes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this