Mathematical modelling of river processes is, nowadays, a key element in river engineering and planning. River modelling tools should rest on conceptual models drawn from mechanics of sediment transport, river mechanics, and river hydrodynamics. The objectives of the present work are (i) to describe conceptual models of sediment transport, deduced from grain-scale mechanics of sediment transport and turbulent flow hydrodynamics, and (ii) to present solutions to specific river morphology problems. The conceptual models described are applicable to the morphologic evolution of rivers subjected to the transport of poorly sorted sediment mixtures at low shear stresses and to geomorphic flows featuring intense sediment transport at high shear stresses. In common, these applications share the fact that sediment transport and flow resistance depend, essentially, on grain-scale phenomena. The idealized flow structures are presented and discussed. Numerical solutions for equilibrium and nonequilibrium sediment transport are presented and compared with laboratory and field data.