Mastadenovirus Molecular Diversity in Waste and Environmental Waters from the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

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In face of the absence of epidemiological data regarding the circulation of human adenoviruses (HAdV) in Portugal, this study aimed at the evaluation of their molecular diversity in waste and environmental waters in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA). Using samples collected between 2018 and 2021, the HAdV hexon protein-coding sequence was partially amplified using three nested touch-down PCR protocols. The amplification products obtained were analyzed in parallel by two approaches: molecular cloning followed by Sanger sequencing and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) using Illumina® sequencing. The analysis of NGS-generated data allowed the identification of a higher diversity of HAdV-A (19%), -B (1%), -C (3%), -D (24%), and -F (25%) viral types, along with murine adenovirus (MAdV-2; 30%) in the wastewater treatment plant samples. On the other hand, HAdV-A (19%), -D (32%), and -F (36%) were identified in environmental samples, and possibly MAdV-2 (14%). These results demonstrate the presence of fecal contamination in environmental waters and the assessment of the diversity of this virus provides important information regarding the distribution of HAdV in LMA, including the detection of HAdV-F41, the most frequently reported in water worldwide.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2443
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • environmental waters
  • human adenovirus
  • molecular diversity
  • nested PCR
  • next-generation sequencing
  • phylogenetic analysis
  • wastewater


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