Telecommunications have grown to be a pillar to a functional society and the urge for reliable and high throughput systems has become the main objective of researchers and engineers. State-of-the-art work considers massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (massive MIMO) as the key technology for 5G and beyond. Large spatial multiplexing and diversity gains are some of the major benefits together with an improved energy efficiency. Current works mostly assume the application of well-established techniques in a massive MIMO scenario, although there are still open challenges regarding hardware and computational complexities and energy efficiency. Fully digital, analog, and hybrid structures are analyzed and a multi-layer massive MIMO transmission technique is detailed. The purpose of this article is to describe the most acknowledged transmission techniques for massive MIMO systems and to analyze some of the most promising ones and identify existing problems and limitations.
- Massive MIMO
- Multi-layer MIMO
- Power and spectral efficiency
- Spatial multiplexing