Mapping stakeholder perception on the challenges of brownfield sites’ redevelopment in waterfronts: the Tagus Estuary

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18 Citations (Scopus)


With the emergence of the third technological cycle, we have witnessed the gradual functional obsolescence of large industrial complexes inherited from the second industrialization, some of which located on waterfronts. Given their particularities, regeneration processes of these brownfield sites face complex challenges, in addition to those placed upon the regeneration of first generation port/industrial areas. Based upon the case study of brownfield sites in the Tagus Estuary (Portugal), this article aims to understand, systematise and discuss the challenges and barriers facing the regeneration of these areas, through the perception of the stakeholders involved in this process. The results obtained showed that 20 challenges/barriers are involved in understanding the difficulties of brownfield regeneration. These can be classified into six categories: governance (i.e. inconsistency of political vision, inadequacy of the intervention concept, inadequacy of the institutional model, inadequacy of institutional coordination, instability of the institutional model, lack of promotion and marketing); infrastructure (i.e. undefined structural projects, lack of accessibility); territorial (i.e. size of the intervention areas, location of the intervention areas, metropolitan territorial model, land ownership issues); finance (i.e. lack of investment, financial liabilities, financial crisis, property market crisis); culture (i.e. industrial tradition, industrial stigma); environment (i.e. environmental liabilities, climate change effects).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2447-2464
Number of pages18
JournalEuropean Planning Studies
Issue number12
Early online date1 Jan 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Brownfield sites
  • post-industrial era
  • Tagus Estuary
  • urban regeneration
  • waterfronts


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