Made by Mistake? The Co-creation Paradox: An Abstract

Vinícius Nardi, Wagner Ladeira, Diego Costa Pinto, Márcia Maurer Herter

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Visual attention is a key variable when consumers choose a product (in the store or online) and might be able to demonstrate consumers’ engagement in the buying process using eye-tracking. It is possible that the negative effects of co-creation may derive from a common factor: consumers—after exposed to co-creation activities—may reduce their engagement to the outcomes of the process (i.e., new co-created product) that can be measured by the visual attention. In four experimental studies using eye-tracking and online panels, we investigate the effects of co-creation on visual attention and buying intentions. Study 1 explores the effects of co-creation (vs. control) on consumers’ visual attention and on buying intentions revealing that while consumers have higher buying intentions towards co-created products, it leads to reduced visual attention. We call this effect the co-creation paradox. Study 2 explores the moderating role of construal level on the co-creation effects. In particular, it establishes that visual attention depends not only on co-creation but also on consumers’ salient construal level showing that concrete (vs. abstract) construal can mitigate the negative effects on visual attention. That is because people in abstract (vs. concrete) construal form representations of an object that retain only central aspects, omitting specific and detailed information (Liberman and Trope 1998), reducing consumers’ visual attention. Study 3 suggests the moderating role of deindividuation on the cocreation-visual attention relationship. Deindividuation theory proposes that people act as if they immersed in the group, reducing self-perception and adhering to the community (Postmes and Spears 1998). Specifically, Study 3 findings reveal that low deindividuation states increase the personal responsibility of co-creators and mitigate the negative on visual attention. Study 4 evaluate the interaction effects of deindividuation and construal level on the cocreation-buying intentions relationship. Study 4 shed light on the negative aspect of concrete (vs. abstract) construal, revealing the “neutralization” of co-creation positive effects on buying intentions. At the same time, Study 4 reinforces the positive effects of deindividuation in this context.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFrom Micro to Macro: Dealing with Uncertainties in the Global Marketplace
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science
EditorsFelipe Pantoja, Shuang Wu
PublisherSpringer Nature
Number of pages2
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-89883-0
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-89882-3, 978-3-030-89885-4
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event2020 Academy of Marketing Science Annual Conference - Virtual
Duration: 14 Dec 202019 Dec 2020
Conference number: 2020

Publication series

NameDevelopments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science
ISSN (Print)2363-6165
ISSN (Electronic)2363-6173


Conference2020 Academy of Marketing Science Annual Conference
Abbreviated titleAMS 2020
Internet address


  • Buying intentions
  • Co-creation
  • Deindividuation
  • Eye-tracking
  • Visual attention


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