Progress in agricultural productivity and sustainability hinges on strategic investments in technological research. Evolving technologies such as the Internet of Things, sensors, robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Big Data, and Cloud Computing are propelling the agricultural sector towards the transformative Agriculture 4.0 paradigm. The present systematic literature review employs the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology to explore the usage of Machine Learning in agriculture. The study investigates the foremost applications of Machine Learning, including crop, water, soil, and animal management, revealing its important role in revolutionising traditional agricultural practices. Furthermore, it assesses the substantial impacts and outcomes of Machine Learning adoption and highlights some challenges associated with its integration in agricultural systems. This review not only provides valuable insights into the current landscape of Machine Learning applications in agriculture, but it also outlines promising directions for future research and innovation in this rapidly evolving field.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2976
Number of pages27
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023


  • Agriculture 4.0
  • machine learning
  • systematic reviews and meta analytics


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