Long-term monitoring of mediterranean socio-ecological systems

Marta F. Calvache, Rui Santos, Paula Antunes, Margarida Santos-Reis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The montado (in Portugal) or dehesa (in Spain) is an agrosilvopastoral system found in the Iberian Peninsula. Due to its high environmental value, its protection forms part of European biodiversity strategies, but recent management trends are threatening its sustainability. The need to understand the drivers of change and associated impacts means that launching an integrative monitoring of this system is urgent. This article identifies critical elements of the socioeconomic system to be considered within a socio-ecological monitoring of montados and conducts a review of potential indicators based on generally available data. We conclude by pointing out that monitoring of this socio-ecological system faces multiple challenges, such as limited data availability, the difficulty of defining a set of indicators that reflects the complexity of montados, and the integration of data of different natures and diverse temporal and spatial scales. The approach presented in this research can be adapted to similar agroforestry systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
JournalAgroforestry Systems
Issue number3
Early online date23 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Agrosilvopastoral systems
  • Framework
  • Indicators
  • Monitoring
  • Montado
  • Socio-ecological research


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