The toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TIO2 NPs) and oxidative stress effects were studied in two freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus and Danio rerio) exposed for 21 days to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100/mgL) of TiO2 NPs and to a control (tap water). Additional fish were transferred to clean water for 14 days to assess the ability to recover from exposure to TiO2 NPs. Activities of the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) (malondialdheyde) were measured as indicators of oxidative stress. Histological and ultra-structural changes in livers from bothspecies of fish were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Results show a general GST activity increase according to TiO2 NPs concentrations, which is in agreement with data from LPO. After 21 days, GST activities decreased possibly caused by suppression of GST synthesis as a result of severe stress. Histological and ultra-structural analysis of livers from exposed fish show degeneration of the hepatic tissue and alterations in hepatocytes such as glycogen depletion and an increase in lipofucsin lysosome-like granules. After a depuration period a partial recovery for biochemical markers and cells was observed. The results suggest that TiO2 promotes alterations in hepatic tissues compatible with oxidative stress.
- titanium dioxide
- ultra-structural changes