Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Many current therapies rely on chemotherapeutic agents with poor specificity for tumor cells. The clinical success of cisplatin has prompted the research and design of a huge number of metal-based complexes as potential chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, two zinc(II) complexes, [ZnL 2] and [ZnL(AcO)], where AcO is acetate and L is an organic compound combining 8-hydroxyquinoline and a benzothiazole moiety, were developed and characterized. Analytical and spectroscopic studies, namely, NMR, FTIR, and UV-Vis allowed us to establish the complexes' structures, demonstrating the ligand-binding versatility: tetradentate in [ZnL(AcO)] and bidentate in [ZnL 2]. Complexes were screened in vitro using murine and human colon cancer cells cultured in 2D and 3D settings. In 2D cells, the IC 50 values were <22 µM, while in 3D settings, much higher concentrations were required. [ZnL(AcO)] displayed more suitable antiproliferative properties than [ZnL 2] and was chosen for further studies. Moreover, based on the weak selectivity of the zinc-based complex towards cancer cell lines in comparison to the non-tumorigenic cell line, its incorporation in long-blood-circulating liposomes was performed, aiming to improve its targetability. The resultant optimized liposomal nanoformulation presented an I.E. of 76% with a mean size under 130 nm and a neutral surface charge and released the metal complex in a pH-dependent manner. The antiproliferative properties of [ZnL(AcO)] were maintained after liposomal incorporation. Preliminary safety assays were carried out through hemolytic activity that never surpassed 2% for the free and liposomal forms of [ZnL(AcO)]. Finally, in a syngeneic murine colon cancer mouse model, while free [ZnL(AcO)] was not able to impair tumor progression, the respective liposomal nanoformulation was able to reduce the relative tumor volume in the same manner as the positive control 5-fluorouracil but, most importantly, using a dosage that was 3-fold lower. Overall, our results show that liposomes were able to solve the solubility issues of the new metal-based complex and target it to tumor sites.
- Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
- Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy
- Coordination Complexes/chemistry