Lifestyle, metabolic disorders and male hypogonadism – A one-way ticket?

Luís Crisóstomo, Sara C. Pereira, Mariana P. Monteiro, João F. Raposo, Pedro F. Oliveira, Marco G. Alves

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Hypogonadism is more frequent among men with common metabolic diseases, notably obesity and type 2 diabetes. Indeed, endocrine disruption caused by metabolic diseases can trigger the onset of hypogonadism, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely understood. Metabolic diseases are closely related to unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as dietary habits and sedentarism. Therefore, hypogonadism is part of a pathological triad gathering unhealthy lifestyle, metabolic disease and genetic background. Additionally, hypogonadism harbors the potential to aggravate underlying metabolic disorders, further sustaining the mechanisms leading to disease. To what extent does lifestyle intervention in men suffering from these metabolic disorders can prevent, improve or reverse hypogonadism, is still controversial. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the metabolic status of the father is related to the risk of inter and transgenerational inheritance of hypogonadism. In this review, we will address the proposed mechanisms of disease, as well as currently available interventions for hypogonadism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110945
JournalMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


  • Hypogonadism
  • Lifestyle
  • Lifestyle intervention
  • Metabolic disorder
  • Transgenerational effects


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