Lethal and sublethal toxicity of pesticides and vinasse used in sugarcane cultivation to Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (Crustacea: Cladocera)

Laís C. M. Silva, Raquel A. Moreira, Thandy J. S. Pinto, Marina R. Vanderlei, Danillo B. Athayde, Laís F. P. Lopes, Allan P. Ogura, Maria P. C. Yoshii, Juliane S. Freitas, Cassiana C. Montagner, Bianca V. Goulart, Luis Schiesari, Michiel A. Daam, Evaldo L. G. Espíndola

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2 Citations (Scopus)


With the growing use of agrochemicals in Brazil, there is also a growing need for more realistic toxicity assessments that aid in understanding the potential risks of environmental-realistic agrochemical (mixture) exposures in the natural ecosystems. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects of environmental realistic (single and mixture) concentrations of the pesticides DMA® 806 BR (active ingredient - a.i. 2,4-D) and Regent® 800 WG (a.i. fipronil) and sugarcane vinasse to the Neotropical cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii. This evaluation was carried out through lethal (survival), sublethal (reproduction and intrinsic rates of population increase - r) and post-exposure (feeding rate and also reproduction) tests conducted in situ and with water from mesocosms contaminated with the recommended doses of these compounds. The results showed high acute toxicity for treatments containing fipronil and vinasse when acting in isolation, with survival rates only returning to control values on the last sampling day (75 days post application). Reproduction of surviving cladocerans was reduced in all treatments until the end of the experiment and were potentiated effect in the mixture of the three test compounds. The intrinsic rates of population increase were reduced in all treatments except the single 2,4-D treatment. Post-exposure feeding rate and reproduction, however, were not impaired under the conditions analyzed. The results show the high toxicity of recommended doses of fipronil and vinasse (and especially their mixture) and the importance of evaluating the risks of agrochemical mixtures at environmental-realistic concentrations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106017
JournalAquatic Toxicology
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Cladoceran
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Mesocosm
  • Post-exposure feeding rate
  • Reproduction
  • Tropics


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