Laser-Induced Graphene from Paper for Mechanical Sensing

Bohdan Kulyk, Beatriz F. R. Silva, Alexandre F. Carvalho, Sara L. Silvestre, António José S. Fernandes, Rodrigo Martins, Elvira Fortunato, Florinda M. Costa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


The ability to synthesize laser-induced graphene (LIG) on cellulosic materials such as paper opens the door to a wide range of potential applications, from consumer electronics to biomonitoring. In this work, strain and bending sensors fabricated by irradiation of regular filter paper with a CO2 laser are presented. A systematic study of the influence of the different process parameters on the conversion of cellulose fibers into LIG is undertaken, by analyzing the resulting morphology, structure, conductivity, and surface chemistry. The obtained material is characterized by porous electrically conductive weblike structures with sheet resistances reaching as low as 32 ω sq-1. The functionality of both strain (gauge factor of ≈42) and bending sensors is demonstrated for different sensing configurations, emphasizing the versatility and potential of this material for low-cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly mechanical sensing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10210-10221
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 3 Mar 2021


  • bending sensors
  • cellulose
  • laser-induced graphene
  • paper
  • strain sensors


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