Laser-Induced Graphene from Paper by Ultraviolet Irradiation: Humidity and Temperature Sensors

Bohdan Kulyk, Beatriz F. R. Silva, Alexandre F. Carvalho, Paula C. Barbosa, Ana Violeta Girão, Jonas Deuermeier, António J. S. Fernandes, Filipe M. L. Figueiredo, Elvira Fortunato, Florinda M. Costa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Laser-induced graphene (LIG) produced by irradiation of paper (paper-LIG)holds substantial promise for flexible devices. This article presents paper-LIG humidity and temperature sensors fabricated by single-step irradiation of common filter paper with a pulsed UV laser (355 nm). The influence of the process parameters on the conversion of cellulose fibers into LIG is discussed based on the resulting morphology, structure, conductivity, and chemical composition, revealing a distinct barrier to transformation and a propagation behavior not seen under CO2 laser irradiation. The obtained material is constituted by a porous, electrically conductive network of fibers. The paper-LIG relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors with sensitivities of up to 1.3 × 10−3%RH−1 and - 2.8 × 10−3 °C−1, respectively, are examined in terms of their linearity, reproducibility, and response time. A detailed discussion on the response mechanism is presented in the context of literature, pointing towards the absorption of water molecules in the interlayer spacing of graphene as the main reason for the increase in resistance with RH. Additionally, a contribution from variable range hopping along the ab plane of graphene at high RH is suggested. These results demonstrate the potential of paper-LIG for low-cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly sensing.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvanced Materials Technologies
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

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