Lactic Acid-Based Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents to Extract Bioactives from Marine By-Products

Maha M. Abdallah, Martim Cardeira, Ana A. Matias, Maria Rosário Bronze, Naiara Fernández

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDES) were used to extract bioactive compounds from marine by-products: codfish bones, mussel meat, and tuna vitreous humor. NaDES were prepared using natural compounds, including lactic acid (Lac), fructose (Fru), and urea (Ur), and were characterized to define their physicochemical properties, including the viscosity, density, surface tension, and refractive index. FTIR and NMR analysis confirmed the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in NaDES. The extracts obtained using these NaDES were characterized to define their composition. Results demonstrated that the extract’s composition differed highly, depending not only on the DES used, but also on the structure and composition of the raw material. Proteins and lipids were mainly present in extracts obtained from mussels, while ash content was highest in the extracts obtained from codfish bones. The biocompatibility of NaDES and the soluble fractions (SF) of the raw materials in NaDES was evaluated, and it was possible to conclude that the soluble ingredients obtained from the raw materials improved the biocompatibility of NaDES.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4356
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022


  • biocompatibility
  • extraction process
  • marine waste valorization
  • natural deep eutectic solvents
  • physicochemical characterization


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