Lactate is associated with mortality in very old intensive care patients suffering from COVID-19: results from an international observational study of 2860 patients

Raphael Romano Bruno, Bernhard Wernly, Hans Flaatten, Jesper Fjølner, Antonio Artigas, Bernardo Bollen Pinto, Joerg C. Schefold, Stephan Binnebössel, Philipp Heinrich Baldia, Malte Kelm, Michael Beil, Sivri Sigal, Peter Vernon van Heerden, Wojciech Szczeklik, Muhammed Elhadi, Michael Joannidis, Sandra Oeyen, Tilemachos Zafeiridis, Jakob Wollborn, Maria José Arche BanzoKristina Fuest, Brian Marsh, Finn H. Andersen, Rui Moreno, Susannah Leaver, Ariane Boumendil, Dylan W. De Lange, Bertrand Guidet, Christian Jung, Philipp Eller, Michael Joannidis, Dieter Mesotten, Pascal Reper, Sandra Oeyen, Walter Swinnen, Nicolas Serck, Elisabeth Dewaele, Edwin Chapeta, Helene Brix, Jens Brushoej, Pritpal Kumar, Helene Korvenius Nedergaard, Tim Koch Johnsen, Camilla Bundesen, Maria Aagaard Hansen, Stine Uhrenholt, Helle Bundgaard, Jesper Fjølner, Richard Innes, Filipe Sousa Cardoso

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9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. Methods: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study) recruited patients aged 70 years or older (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04321265) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 disease from March 2020 to February 2021. In addition to serial lactate values (arterial blood gas analysis), we recorded several parameters, including SOFA score, ICU procedures, limitation of care, ICU- and 3-month mortality. A lactate concentration ≥ 2.0 mmol/L on the day of ICU admission (baseline) was defined as abnormal. The primary outcome was ICU-mortality. The secondary outcomes 30-day and 3-month mortality. Results: In total, data from 2860 patients were analyzed. In most patients (68%), serum lactate was lower than 2 mmol/L. Elevated baseline serum lactate was associated with significantly higher ICU- and 3-month mortality (53% vs. 43%, and 71% vs. 57%, respectively, p < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, the maximum lactate concentration on day 1 was independently associated with ICU mortality (aOR 1.06 95% CI 1.02–1.11; p = 0.007), 30-day mortality (aOR 1.07 95% CI 1.02–1.13; p = 0.005) and 3-month mortality (aOR 1.15 95% CI 1.08–1.24; p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, gender, SOFA score, and frailty. In 826 patients with baseline lactate ≥ 2 mmol/L sufficient data to calculate the difference between maximal levels on days 1 and 2 (∆ serum lactate) were available. A decreasing lactate concentration over time was inversely associated with ICU mortality after multivariate adjustment for SOFA score, age, Clinical Frailty Scale, and gender (aOR 0.60 95% CI 0.42–0.85; p = 0.004). Conclusion: In critically ill old intensive care patients suffering from COVID-19, lactate and its kinetics are valuable tools for outcome prediction. Trial registration number: NCT04321265.

Original languageEnglish
Article number128
JournalAnnals of Intensive Care
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

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