As service-oriented architectures are a solution for large distributed systems, interoperabil-ity between these systems, which are often heterogeneous, can be a challenge due to the different syntax and semantics of the exchanged messages or even different data interchange formats. This paper addresses the data interchange format and data interoperability issues between XML-based and JSON-based systems. It proposes novel annotation mechanisms to add semantic annotations and complement date values to JSON Schemas, enabling an interoperability approach for JSON-based systems that, until now, was only possible for XML-based systems. A set of algorithms supporting the translation from JSON Schema to XML Schema, JSON to XML, and XML to JSON is also pro-posed. These algorithms were implemented in an existing prototype tool, which now supports these systems’ interoperability through semantic compatibility verification and the automatic generation of translators.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11978
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 16 Dec 2021


  • Arrowhead framework
  • Interoperability
  • JSON schema
  • Message transformation
  • Semantic and ontology reasoning
  • Semantic annotations
  • Service-oriented architecture
  • Translator automatic generation


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