Antiseptics and disinfectants are extensively used for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications. A wide variety of biocides as active chemical agents is found in these products, including alcohols, phenols, iodine, and chlorine. Many of these active agents demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; however, the mode of action of these agents is not well-documented. This review is focused on several examples of ionic systems based on ionic surfactants and ionic liquids as well as nanomaterials and nanoparticles acting as antiseptics and disinfectants for surfaces. It is important to note that many of these biocides may be used singly or in combination in a variety of products, which vary considerably in activity against microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity can be influenced by several factors such as formulation effects, presence of an organic load, synergy, temperature, dilution, and test method. The most promissory compounds based on ionic systems and nanomaterials published in mainly the last decade is chronologically reported in this review.
- ionic liquids & surfactants
- nanomaterials & nanoparticles