Ionic-Liquid-Based Printable Materials for Thermochromic and Thermoresistive Applications

Liliana C. Fernandes, Daniela M. Correia, Clara García-Astrain, Nelson Pereira, Mohammad Tariq, José M. S. S. Esperança, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Smart materials exhibiting thermochromic and themoresistive properties based on the electroactive polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and the ionic liquid (IL) bis(1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) tetrachloronickelate ([Bmim]2[NiCl4]) have been developed with different contents of [Bmim]2[NiCl4] (10, 20, and 40 wt %) within the polymer matrix. The morphology of the composites is studied, and the thermochromic and thermoresistive properties are evaluated. Independently of the IL content, the PVDF/[Bmim]2[NiCl4] composites present a porous morphology and thermochromic response, revealed by the color change of the composites from transparent to dark blue, attributed to the tetrahedral complex NiCl42- formed after a dehydration process. Further, the electrical conductivity increases with increasing IL content and decreases with increasing temperature. It is also shown that the incorporation of the IL into the PVDF matrix leads to an increase in the electroactive β phase and a decrease in the degree of crystallinity and thermal stability with increasing [Bmim]2[NiCl4] content. The printability and applicability of the developed materials as sensors are also demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20316-20324
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jun 2019


  • electroactive materials
  • ionic liquids
  • PVDF
  • smart materials
  • thermochromic materials
  • [Bmim][NiCl]


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