Investigation of the protective suitability of a dental fluorinated varnish by means of X Ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

Iulian Otel, Kateline Marisa Dias, Ruben Pereira, Micaela Fonseca, A. P. Jesus, António Mata, Valentina Vassilenko, João Miguel Silveira, Sofia Pessanha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
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Background and aim: Evaluating the protective effect in human enamel of a fluorinated varnish after enduring a citric acid erosive challenge. Methods: An in vitro model was developed considering the intraoral environment, human saliva and acid erosive procedures. The evaluation of the enamel specimens was undertaken through the direct analysis of enamel by means of Raman spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Ten tooth specimens per group were analysed during three stages: 1- before treatment; 2- After varnish (treatment group) or toothpaste (control) application; 3- After citric acid cycle. Additionally, Particle Induced Gamma Ray emission (PIGE) was used to gauge the fluorine uptake by enamel after the application of the varnish (stage 2). Results were presented as mean and standard deviation with ANOVA and Tukey post hoc performed considering a significance level of 0.05. Results: A significant (p < 0.05) higher Ca levels were detected in treatment group at stage 2 (37.4 ± 0.4 w/w%) and 3 (37.1 ± 0.1) when compared to the control group. After varnish application in treatment group, depolarization ratios were significant lower (p < 0.05) and anisotropy were significant higher (p < 0.05), however no differences were detected in FWHM. Conclusions: The use of a fluorinated dental varnish suggests a protective effect for human enamel against dental erosion demineralization process which was detectable in an in vitro model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number126938
JournalJournal Of Trace Elements In Medicine And Biology
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • Acidic cycle
  • Calcium
  • Enamel
  • Fluorine
  • Phosphate


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