Interrogating the Inhibition Mechanisms of Human Aldehyde Oxidase by X-ray Crystallography and NMR Spectroscopy: The Raloxifene Case

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Abstract

Human aldehyde oxidase (hAOX1) is mainly present in the liver and has an emerging role in drug metabolism, since it accepts a wide range of molecules as substrates and inhibitors. Herein, we employed an integrative approach by combining NMR, X-ray crystallography, and enzyme inhibition kinetics to understand the inhibition modes of three hAOX1 inhibitors - thioridazine, benzamidine, and raloxifene. These integrative data indicate that thioridazine is a noncompetitive inhibitor, while benzamidine presents a mixed type of inhibition. Additionally, we describe the first crystal structure of hAOX1 in complex with raloxifene. Raloxifene binds tightly at the entrance of the substrate tunnel, stabilizing the flexible entrance gates and elucidating an unusual substrate-dependent mechanism of inhibition with potential impact on drug-drug interactions. This study can be considered as a proof-of-concept for an efficient experimental screening of prospective substrates and inhibitors of hAOX1 relevant in drug discovery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13025-13037
Number of pages13
JournalJournal Of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume64
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Sep 2021

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