This study provides a comprehensive picture of the C. neoformans/C. gattii molecular types most often associated with human cryptococcosis in Portugal and assesses the impact of C. gattii in these infections. One hundred and twenty-two clinical isolates, from distinct patients, were identified as C. neoformans and genotyped by URA5-RFLP, with the molecular types VNI (45.5 %) and VNIII (30.9 %) being the most commonly found ones. The molecular types VNII (11.4 %) and VNIV (11.4 %) were less abundant. One patient was found to be infected with a VGII isolate. This patient exhibited unusual clinical symptoms of cryptococcosis, reinforcing the suspicion for the presence of a different genotypic pattern, as determined afterwards. This case was detected in 2007 and is the first report of a potential autochthonous C. gattii infection case in Portugal, as the patient revealed no historical record of travelling outside the country.