Ferroelectric composites are now an established alternative to conventional ferroelectric ceramic materials and to the more recently discovered ferroelectric polymers. These materials due to their unique blending of polymeric properties of mechanical flexibility, formability and low cost with high electro-active properties have been been suggested to be a viable alternative both in piezoelectric and pyroelectric transducer applications. This review is devoted to the piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties exhibited by these type of composites with a special reference to those made of ceramic particles embedded in a polymer matrix (i.e. 0-3 connectivity type composite). A review of models predicting the electro-active properties of 0-3 composites is presented together with a proposal for a new mixed connectivity cubes model to be applicable to the case of high ceramic loading and/or when the ceramic grain size incorporated in the polymer matrix is comparable to the thickness of the sample. A review of the experimental results of the piezo- and pyroelectric properties of various ferroelectric composite materials, reported by several workers, is also presented in this paper. Special reference is made to composites made from calcium modified lead titanate and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluorethylene) emphasizing their advantages in the poling process which is a critical phase in the process of obtaining successful electro-active 0-3 composite electrets.
|Number of pages||29|
|Journal||Ieee Transactions On Dielectrics And Electrical Insulation|
|Publication status||Published - 1996|