Individual and mixture toxicity of carbofuran and diuron to the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii

Adrislaine S. Mansano, Raquel A. Moreira, Hugo C. Dornfeld, Emanuela C. Freitas, Eny M. Vieira, Michiel A. Daam, Odete Rocha, Mirna H. R. Seleghim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The toxicity of the insecticide carbofuran and herbicide diuron (individually and in mixture) to the invertebrates Paramecium caudatum and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii was evaluated. Acute and chronic toxicity tests were carried out with the diuron and carbofuran active ingredients and their commercial products, Diuron Nortox® 500 SC and Furadan® 350 SC, respectively. Individual toxicity tests showed that C. silvestrii was more sensitive to both carbofuran and diuron than P. caudatum. In single exposures, both pesticides caused adverse effects to C. silvestrii in environmentally relevant concentrations (48 h EC50 = 0.001 mg L−1 and 8 d LOEC = 0.00038 mg L−1 for formulated carbofuran; 8 d LOEC < 0.05 mg L−1 for formulated diuron). For P. caudatum, carbofuran and diuron in single exposures were only slightly toxic (24 h IC50 = 5.1 mg L−1 and 6.9 mg L−1 for formulated carbofuran and diuron, respectively). Acute and chronic exposures to diuron and carbofuran mixtures caused significant deviations of the toxicity predicted by the Concentration Addition and Independent Action reference models for both test species. For the protozoan P. caudatum, a dose-dependent deviation was verified for mortality, with synergism caused mainly by carbofuran and antagonism caused mainly by diuron. For protozoan population growth, however, an antagonistic deviation was observed when the active ingredient mixtures were tested. In the case of C. silvestrii, antagonism at low concentrations and synergism at high concentrations were revealed after acute exposure to active ingredient mixtures, whereas for reproduction an antagonistic deviation was found. Commercial formulation mixtures presented significantly higher toxicity than the active ingredient mixtures. Our results showed that carbofuran and diuron interact and cause different toxic responses than those predicted by the individually tested compounds. Their mixture toxicity should therefore be considered in risk assessments as these pesticides are likely to be present simultaneously in edge-of-field waterbodies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110829
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2020


  • Antagonism
  • Ciliate
  • Neotropical cladoceran
  • Pesticide mixture
  • Synergism


Dive into the research topics of 'Individual and mixture toxicity of carbofuran and diuron to the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this