Immersive and Non-Immersive Simulators for the Education and Training in Maritime Domain: A Review

Mohammud Hanif Dewan, Radu Godina, M. Rezaul Karim Chowdhury, Che Wan Mohd Noor, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan Nik, Mustafa Man

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In the domain of Marine Education and Training (MET), simulators have been utilized for the purpose of training seafarers in the norms for avoiding collisions or for developing the skill of ship manoeuvrability, and even the operation of machinery in the engine room, as well as for conducting research on the subject matter of ship structure, specialized vessel operation, working principle of equipment, and shipboard safety training. These tools are even more important when facing disruptive events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. In MET institutions, full-mission bridge and engine room simulators have been utilized for teaching seafarers for more than a decade. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted to identify immersive and non-immersive simulator applications produced over the previous ten years to improve seafarers’ experiential teaching and learning, in the maritime domain. We retrieved 27 articles using the four stages of PRISMA paradigm: Identification, Screening, Eligibility, and Inclusion. The selected papers were read and analyzed according to the training type, the area of training, and the technologies used. The utilization of immersive and non-immersive simulators in the context of the MET domain has been identified and mapped. A few research studies (9 out of 27) compared immersive and non-immersive simulator-based training with conventional training. The quality and efficacy of immersive and non-immersive simulator training at MET institutions have been studied. A model from the learner’s perspective is essential and recommended for future research to assess efficiency and efficacy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number147
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jan 2023


  • immersive technologies
  • non-immersive simulator
  • maritime education and training


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