Hypoxia tolerance and antioxidant defense system of juvenile jumbo squids in oxygen minimum zones

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Abstract

Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) is a large oceanic squid endemic off the Eastern Tropical Pacific that undertakes diel vertical migrations into mesopelagic oxygen minimum zones. One of the expected physiological effects of such migration is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the surface, promoted by the transition between hypoxia and reoxygenation states. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure rates and the antioxidant stress strategies of juvenile D. gigas under normoxia and hypoxia, namely by quantifying oxygen consumption rates, antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], heat shock protein expression (Hsp70/Hsc70), and lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. A high significant decrease (68%) in squid’s metabolic rates was observed during hypoxia (p<0.05). This process of metabolic suppression was followed by a significant increase in Hsp70/Hsc70 expression (p<0.05), which may be interpreted as a strategy to prevent post-hypoxic oxidative damage during the squid’s night upwards migration to the surface ocean. On the other hand, in normoxia, the higher SOD and CAT activities seemed to be a strategy to cope with the reoxygenation process, and may constitute an integrated stress response at shallower depths. GST activity and MDA concentrations did not change significantly from normoxia to hypoxia (p>0.05), with the latter indicating no enhancement of lipid peroxidation (i.e. cellular damage) at the warmer and normoxic surface waters. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how this species is quickly responding to the impacts of environmental stressors coupled with global climate change. ⺠To investigate the antioxidant stress strategies of juvenile D. gigas in normoxia and hypoxia. ⺠Higher SOD and CAT activities constituted an integrated stress response in normoxia. ⺠Elevated heat shock response (Hsp70/Hsc70) while in the OMZ may be a “preparation for oxidative stress”. ⺠Lipid peroxidation remained stable indicating no enhancement of cellular damage during the night upwards migration.
Original languageUnknown
Pages (from-to)209-217
JournalDeep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies In Oceanography
Volume95
Issue numberNA
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013

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