Hybrid-Trefftz finite elements for nonhomogeneous parabolic problems

Ionut D. Moldovan, Ana Coutinho, Ildi Cismasiu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The solution of transient parabolic problems using a novel hybrid-Trefftz finite element is presented in this chapter. The governing equations are first discretized in time and reduced to a series of non-homogeneous elliptic problems in space variables only. The complementary and particular solutions of each elliptic problem are approximated independently. The complementary solution is expanded in Trefftz bases, designed to satisfy exactly the homogeneous form of the problem. Trefftz bases include regular functions of arbitrary orders and are defined independently for each finite element. A novel dual reciprocity method is used for the approximation of the particular solution, to avoid domain integration. The same, regular basis is used for the expansions of the source function and particular solution, avoiding the cumbersome expressions of the latter that typify conventional dual reciprocity techniques. Moreover, the bases of the complementary and particular solutions are defined by the same expressions, with different wave numbers. The finite element formulation is obtained by enforcing weakly the domain equations and boundary conditions. The formulation is implemented in the computational platform FreeHyTE, where it takes advantage of the pre-programmed numerical procedures and graphical user interfaces. The resulting software is open-source, user-friendly and freely distributed to the scientific community.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTrefftz and Fundamental Solution-Based Finite Element Methods
EditorsQin Qing-Hua
Place of PublicationSingapore
PublisherBentham Science Publishers
Number of pages47
ISBN (Electronic)978-981-4998-54-3
ISBN (Print)978-981-4998-55-0, 978-981-4998-56-7
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Dual reciprocity method
  • Hybrid-Trefftz finite element,
  • Particular solution
  • Non-homogeneous parabolic problem


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