How are cities planning to respond to climate change? Assessment of local climate plans from 885 cities in the EU-28

Diana Reckien, Monica Salvia, Oliver Heidrich, Jon Marco Church, Filomena Pietrapertosa, Sonia De Gregorio-Hurtado, Valentina D'Alonzo, Aoife Foley, Sofia G. Simões, Eliška Krkoška Lorencová, Hans Orru, Kati Orru, Anja Wejs, Johannes Flacke, Marta Olazabal, Davide Geneletti, Efrén Feliu, Sergiu Vasilie, Cristiana Nador, Anna Krook-Riekkola & 10 others Marko Matosović, Paris A. Fokaides, Byron I. Ioannou, Alexandros Flamos, Niki Artemis Spyridaki, Mario V. Balzan, Orsolya Fülöp, Ivan Paspaldzhiev, Stelios Grafakos, Richard Dawson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Paris Agreement aims to limit global mean temperature rise this century to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. This target has wide-ranging implications for Europe and its cities, which are the source of substantial greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports the state of local planning for climate change by collecting and analysing information about local climate mitigation and adaptation plans across 885 urban areas of the EU-28. A typology and framework for analysis was developed that classifies local climate plans in terms of their alignment with spatial (local, national and international) and other climate related policies. Out of eight types of local climate plans identified in total we document three types of stand-alone local climate plans classified as type A1 (autonomously produced plans), A2 (plans produced to comply with national regulations) or A3 (plans developed for international climate networks). There is wide variation among countries in the prevalence of local climate plans, with generally more plans developed by central and northern European cities. Approximately 66% of EU cities have a type A1, A2, or A3 mitigation plan, 26% an adaptation plan, and 17% a joint adaptation and mitigation plan, while about 33% lack any form of stand-alone local climate plan (i.e. what we classify as A1, A2, A3 plans). Mitigation plans are more numerous than adaptation plans, but planning for mitigation does not always precede planning for adaptation. Our analysis reveals that city size, national legislation, and international networks can influence the development of local climate plans. We found that size does matter as about 80% of the cities with above 500,000 inhabitants have a comprehensive and stand-alone mitigation and/or an adaptation plan (A1). Cities in four countries with national climate legislation (A2), i.e. Denmark, France, Slovakia and the United Kingdom, are nearly twice as likely to produce local mitigation plans, and five times more likely to produce local adaptation plans, compared to cities in countries without such legislation. A1 and A2 mitigation plans are particularly numerous in Denmark, Poland, Germany, and Finland; while A1 and A2 adaptation plans are prevalent in Denmark, Finland, UK and France. The integration of adaptation and mitigation is country-specific and can mainly be observed in two countries where local climate plans are compulsory, i.e. France and the UK. Finally, local climate plans produced for international climate networks (A3) are mostly found in the many countries where autonomous (type A1) plans are less common. This is the most comprehensive analysis of local climate planning to date. The findings are of international importance as they will inform and support decision-making towards climate planning and policy development at national, EU and global level being based on the most comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of local climate planning available to date.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-219
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Volume191
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018

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Urban planning
Climate change
Planning
climate change
climate
mitigation
Gas emissions
Greenhouse gases
plan
city
planning
Climate
Decision making
Mitigation
legislation

Keywords

  • Adaptation
  • Cities
  • Climate change
  • Europe
  • Local climate plans
  • Mitigation
  • Paris agreement
  • SEAP/SECAP
  • Urban areas
  • Urban audit cities

UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

  • SDG 11 - Sustainable Cities and Communities
  • SDG 13 - Climate Action

Cite this

Reckien, D., Salvia, M., Heidrich, O., Church, J. M., Pietrapertosa, F., De Gregorio-Hurtado, S., ... Dawson, R. (2018). How are cities planning to respond to climate change? Assessment of local climate plans from 885 cities in the EU-28. Journal of Cleaner Production, 191, 207-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.220
Reckien, Diana ; Salvia, Monica ; Heidrich, Oliver ; Church, Jon Marco ; Pietrapertosa, Filomena ; De Gregorio-Hurtado, Sonia ; D'Alonzo, Valentina ; Foley, Aoife ; Simões, Sofia G. ; Krkoška Lorencová, Eliška ; Orru, Hans ; Orru, Kati ; Wejs, Anja ; Flacke, Johannes ; Olazabal, Marta ; Geneletti, Davide ; Feliu, Efrén ; Vasilie, Sergiu ; Nador, Cristiana ; Krook-Riekkola, Anna ; Matosović, Marko ; Fokaides, Paris A. ; Ioannou, Byron I. ; Flamos, Alexandros ; Spyridaki, Niki Artemis ; Balzan, Mario V. ; Fülöp, Orsolya ; Paspaldzhiev, Ivan ; Grafakos, Stelios ; Dawson, Richard. / How are cities planning to respond to climate change? Assessment of local climate plans from 885 cities in the EU-28. In: Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018 ; Vol. 191. pp. 207-219.
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abstract = "The Paris Agreement aims to limit global mean temperature rise this century to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. This target has wide-ranging implications for Europe and its cities, which are the source of substantial greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports the state of local planning for climate change by collecting and analysing information about local climate mitigation and adaptation plans across 885 urban areas of the EU-28. A typology and framework for analysis was developed that classifies local climate plans in terms of their alignment with spatial (local, national and international) and other climate related policies. Out of eight types of local climate plans identified in total we document three types of stand-alone local climate plans classified as type A1 (autonomously produced plans), A2 (plans produced to comply with national regulations) or A3 (plans developed for international climate networks). There is wide variation among countries in the prevalence of local climate plans, with generally more plans developed by central and northern European cities. Approximately 66{\%} of EU cities have a type A1, A2, or A3 mitigation plan, 26{\%} an adaptation plan, and 17{\%} a joint adaptation and mitigation plan, while about 33{\%} lack any form of stand-alone local climate plan (i.e. what we classify as A1, A2, A3 plans). Mitigation plans are more numerous than adaptation plans, but planning for mitigation does not always precede planning for adaptation. Our analysis reveals that city size, national legislation, and international networks can influence the development of local climate plans. We found that size does matter as about 80{\%} of the cities with above 500,000 inhabitants have a comprehensive and stand-alone mitigation and/or an adaptation plan (A1). Cities in four countries with national climate legislation (A2), i.e. Denmark, France, Slovakia and the United Kingdom, are nearly twice as likely to produce local mitigation plans, and five times more likely to produce local adaptation plans, compared to cities in countries without such legislation. A1 and A2 mitigation plans are particularly numerous in Denmark, Poland, Germany, and Finland; while A1 and A2 adaptation plans are prevalent in Denmark, Finland, UK and France. The integration of adaptation and mitigation is country-specific and can mainly be observed in two countries where local climate plans are compulsory, i.e. France and the UK. Finally, local climate plans produced for international climate networks (A3) are mostly found in the many countries where autonomous (type A1) plans are less common. This is the most comprehensive analysis of local climate planning to date. The findings are of international importance as they will inform and support decision-making towards climate planning and policy development at national, EU and global level being based on the most comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of local climate planning available to date.",
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Reckien, D, Salvia, M, Heidrich, O, Church, JM, Pietrapertosa, F, De Gregorio-Hurtado, S, D'Alonzo, V, Foley, A, Simões, SG, Krkoška Lorencová, E, Orru, H, Orru, K, Wejs, A, Flacke, J, Olazabal, M, Geneletti, D, Feliu, E, Vasilie, S, Nador, C, Krook-Riekkola, A, Matosović, M, Fokaides, PA, Ioannou, BI, Flamos, A, Spyridaki, NA, Balzan, MV, Fülöp, O, Paspaldzhiev, I, Grafakos, S & Dawson, R 2018, 'How are cities planning to respond to climate change? Assessment of local climate plans from 885 cities in the EU-28', Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 191, pp. 207-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.220

How are cities planning to respond to climate change? Assessment of local climate plans from 885 cities in the EU-28. / Reckien, Diana; Salvia, Monica; Heidrich, Oliver; Church, Jon Marco; Pietrapertosa, Filomena; De Gregorio-Hurtado, Sonia; D'Alonzo, Valentina; Foley, Aoife; Simões, Sofia G.; Krkoška Lorencová, Eliška; Orru, Hans; Orru, Kati; Wejs, Anja; Flacke, Johannes; Olazabal, Marta; Geneletti, Davide; Feliu, Efrén; Vasilie, Sergiu; Nador, Cristiana; Krook-Riekkola, Anna; Matosović, Marko; Fokaides, Paris A.; Ioannou, Byron I.; Flamos, Alexandros; Spyridaki, Niki Artemis; Balzan, Mario V.; Fülöp, Orsolya; Paspaldzhiev, Ivan; Grafakos, Stelios; Dawson, Richard.

In: Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 191, 01.08.2018, p. 207-219.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - How are cities planning to respond to climate change? Assessment of local climate plans from 885 cities in the EU-28

AU - Reckien, Diana

AU - Salvia, Monica

AU - Heidrich, Oliver

AU - Church, Jon Marco

AU - Pietrapertosa, Filomena

AU - De Gregorio-Hurtado, Sonia

AU - D'Alonzo, Valentina

AU - Foley, Aoife

AU - Simões, Sofia G.

AU - Krkoška Lorencová, Eliška

AU - Orru, Hans

AU - Orru, Kati

AU - Wejs, Anja

AU - Flacke, Johannes

AU - Olazabal, Marta

AU - Geneletti, Davide

AU - Feliu, Efrén

AU - Vasilie, Sergiu

AU - Nador, Cristiana

AU - Krook-Riekkola, Anna

AU - Matosović, Marko

AU - Fokaides, Paris A.

AU - Ioannou, Byron I.

AU - Flamos, Alexandros

AU - Spyridaki, Niki Artemis

AU - Balzan, Mario V.

AU - Fülöp, Orsolya

AU - Paspaldzhiev, Ivan

AU - Grafakos, Stelios

AU - Dawson, Richard

N1 - COST Action TU0902. Grant no. FPDI-2013-16631. Grant number LO1415. Contract Ref 308497. EP/N010612/1. Sem PDF conforme despacho.

PY - 2018/8/1

Y1 - 2018/8/1

N2 - The Paris Agreement aims to limit global mean temperature rise this century to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. This target has wide-ranging implications for Europe and its cities, which are the source of substantial greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports the state of local planning for climate change by collecting and analysing information about local climate mitigation and adaptation plans across 885 urban areas of the EU-28. A typology and framework for analysis was developed that classifies local climate plans in terms of their alignment with spatial (local, national and international) and other climate related policies. Out of eight types of local climate plans identified in total we document three types of stand-alone local climate plans classified as type A1 (autonomously produced plans), A2 (plans produced to comply with national regulations) or A3 (plans developed for international climate networks). There is wide variation among countries in the prevalence of local climate plans, with generally more plans developed by central and northern European cities. Approximately 66% of EU cities have a type A1, A2, or A3 mitigation plan, 26% an adaptation plan, and 17% a joint adaptation and mitigation plan, while about 33% lack any form of stand-alone local climate plan (i.e. what we classify as A1, A2, A3 plans). Mitigation plans are more numerous than adaptation plans, but planning for mitigation does not always precede planning for adaptation. Our analysis reveals that city size, national legislation, and international networks can influence the development of local climate plans. We found that size does matter as about 80% of the cities with above 500,000 inhabitants have a comprehensive and stand-alone mitigation and/or an adaptation plan (A1). Cities in four countries with national climate legislation (A2), i.e. Denmark, France, Slovakia and the United Kingdom, are nearly twice as likely to produce local mitigation plans, and five times more likely to produce local adaptation plans, compared to cities in countries without such legislation. A1 and A2 mitigation plans are particularly numerous in Denmark, Poland, Germany, and Finland; while A1 and A2 adaptation plans are prevalent in Denmark, Finland, UK and France. The integration of adaptation and mitigation is country-specific and can mainly be observed in two countries where local climate plans are compulsory, i.e. France and the UK. Finally, local climate plans produced for international climate networks (A3) are mostly found in the many countries where autonomous (type A1) plans are less common. This is the most comprehensive analysis of local climate planning to date. The findings are of international importance as they will inform and support decision-making towards climate planning and policy development at national, EU and global level being based on the most comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of local climate planning available to date.

AB - The Paris Agreement aims to limit global mean temperature rise this century to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. This target has wide-ranging implications for Europe and its cities, which are the source of substantial greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports the state of local planning for climate change by collecting and analysing information about local climate mitigation and adaptation plans across 885 urban areas of the EU-28. A typology and framework for analysis was developed that classifies local climate plans in terms of their alignment with spatial (local, national and international) and other climate related policies. Out of eight types of local climate plans identified in total we document three types of stand-alone local climate plans classified as type A1 (autonomously produced plans), A2 (plans produced to comply with national regulations) or A3 (plans developed for international climate networks). There is wide variation among countries in the prevalence of local climate plans, with generally more plans developed by central and northern European cities. Approximately 66% of EU cities have a type A1, A2, or A3 mitigation plan, 26% an adaptation plan, and 17% a joint adaptation and mitigation plan, while about 33% lack any form of stand-alone local climate plan (i.e. what we classify as A1, A2, A3 plans). Mitigation plans are more numerous than adaptation plans, but planning for mitigation does not always precede planning for adaptation. Our analysis reveals that city size, national legislation, and international networks can influence the development of local climate plans. We found that size does matter as about 80% of the cities with above 500,000 inhabitants have a comprehensive and stand-alone mitigation and/or an adaptation plan (A1). Cities in four countries with national climate legislation (A2), i.e. Denmark, France, Slovakia and the United Kingdom, are nearly twice as likely to produce local mitigation plans, and five times more likely to produce local adaptation plans, compared to cities in countries without such legislation. A1 and A2 mitigation plans are particularly numerous in Denmark, Poland, Germany, and Finland; while A1 and A2 adaptation plans are prevalent in Denmark, Finland, UK and France. The integration of adaptation and mitigation is country-specific and can mainly be observed in two countries where local climate plans are compulsory, i.e. France and the UK. Finally, local climate plans produced for international climate networks (A3) are mostly found in the many countries where autonomous (type A1) plans are less common. This is the most comprehensive analysis of local climate planning to date. The findings are of international importance as they will inform and support decision-making towards climate planning and policy development at national, EU and global level being based on the most comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of local climate planning available to date.

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KW - Cities

KW - Climate change

KW - Europe

KW - Local climate plans

KW - Mitigation

KW - Paris agreement

KW - SEAP/SECAP

KW - Urban areas

KW - Urban audit cities

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