Host- and microbe-related risk factors for and pathophysiology of fatal Rickettsia conorii infection in Portuguese patients

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Abstract

Background. The pathophysiologic mechanisms that determine the severity of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) and the host-related and microbe-related risk factors for a fatal outcome are incompletely understood. Methods. This prospective study used univariate and multivariate analyses to determine the risk factors for a fatal outcome for 140 patients with Rickettsia conorii infection admitted to 13 Portuguese hospitals during 1994-2006 with documented identification of the rickettsial strain causing their infection. Results. A total of 71 patients (51%) were infected with the Malish strain of Rickettsia conorii, and 69 (49%) were infected with the Israeli spotted fever (ISF) strain. Patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (40 [29%]), hospitalized as routine inpatients (95[67%]), or managed as outpatients (5[4%]). Death occurred in 29 adults (21%). A fatal outcome was significantly more likely for patients infected with the ISF strain, and alcoholism was a risk factor. The pathophysiology of a fatal outcome involved significantly greater incidence of petechial rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, obtundation and/or confusion, dehydration, tachypnea, hepatomegaly, leukocytosis, coagulopathy, azotemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated levels of hepatic enzymes and creatine kinase. Some, but not all, of these findings were observed more often in ISF strain-infected patients. Conclusions. Although fatalities and similar clinical manifestations occurred among both groups of patients, the ISF strain was more virulent than the Malish strain. Multivariate analysis revealed that acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia were most strongly associated with a fatal outcome.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)576-585
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume198
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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Rickettsia Infections
Rickettsia conorii
Fatal Outcome
Fever
Hyperbilirubinemia
Multivariate Analysis
Boutonneuse Fever
Azotemia
Tachypnea
Confusion
Hepatomegaly
Leukocytosis
Creatine Kinase
Exanthema
Dehydration
Acute Kidney Injury
Alcoholism
Intensive Care Units
Inpatients
Outpatients

Cite this

@article{05781b5889ba48d0b64141762937b6e1,
title = "Host- and microbe-related risk factors for and pathophysiology of fatal Rickettsia conorii infection in Portuguese patients",
abstract = "Background. The pathophysiologic mechanisms that determine the severity of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) and the host-related and microbe-related risk factors for a fatal outcome are incompletely understood. Methods. This prospective study used univariate and multivariate analyses to determine the risk factors for a fatal outcome for 140 patients with Rickettsia conorii infection admitted to 13 Portuguese hospitals during 1994-2006 with documented identification of the rickettsial strain causing their infection. Results. A total of 71 patients (51{\%}) were infected with the Malish strain of Rickettsia conorii, and 69 (49{\%}) were infected with the Israeli spotted fever (ISF) strain. Patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (40 [29{\%}]), hospitalized as routine inpatients (95[67{\%}]), or managed as outpatients (5[4{\%}]). Death occurred in 29 adults (21{\%}). A fatal outcome was significantly more likely for patients infected with the ISF strain, and alcoholism was a risk factor. The pathophysiology of a fatal outcome involved significantly greater incidence of petechial rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, obtundation and/or confusion, dehydration, tachypnea, hepatomegaly, leukocytosis, coagulopathy, azotemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated levels of hepatic enzymes and creatine kinase. Some, but not all, of these findings were observed more often in ISF strain-infected patients. Conclusions. Although fatalities and similar clinical manifestations occurred among both groups of patients, the ISF strain was more virulent than the Malish strain. Multivariate analysis revealed that acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia were most strongly associated with a fatal outcome.",
keywords = "GENE, IDENTIFICATION, ISRAEL, EXPRESSION, MEDITERRANEAN SPOTTED-FEVER, HUMAN-DISEASE, PROTEIN, COMPLEX, BOUTONNEUSE FEVER, CELLS",
author = "Jorge Torgal",
year = "2008",
doi = "10.1086/590211",
language = "English",
volume = "198",
pages = "576--585",
journal = "Journal of Infectious Diseases",
issn = "0022-1899",
publisher = "University of Chicago Press",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Host- and microbe-related risk factors for and pathophysiology of fatal Rickettsia conorii infection in Portuguese patients

AU - Torgal, Jorge

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - Background. The pathophysiologic mechanisms that determine the severity of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) and the host-related and microbe-related risk factors for a fatal outcome are incompletely understood. Methods. This prospective study used univariate and multivariate analyses to determine the risk factors for a fatal outcome for 140 patients with Rickettsia conorii infection admitted to 13 Portuguese hospitals during 1994-2006 with documented identification of the rickettsial strain causing their infection. Results. A total of 71 patients (51%) were infected with the Malish strain of Rickettsia conorii, and 69 (49%) were infected with the Israeli spotted fever (ISF) strain. Patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (40 [29%]), hospitalized as routine inpatients (95[67%]), or managed as outpatients (5[4%]). Death occurred in 29 adults (21%). A fatal outcome was significantly more likely for patients infected with the ISF strain, and alcoholism was a risk factor. The pathophysiology of a fatal outcome involved significantly greater incidence of petechial rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, obtundation and/or confusion, dehydration, tachypnea, hepatomegaly, leukocytosis, coagulopathy, azotemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated levels of hepatic enzymes and creatine kinase. Some, but not all, of these findings were observed more often in ISF strain-infected patients. Conclusions. Although fatalities and similar clinical manifestations occurred among both groups of patients, the ISF strain was more virulent than the Malish strain. Multivariate analysis revealed that acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia were most strongly associated with a fatal outcome.

AB - Background. The pathophysiologic mechanisms that determine the severity of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) and the host-related and microbe-related risk factors for a fatal outcome are incompletely understood. Methods. This prospective study used univariate and multivariate analyses to determine the risk factors for a fatal outcome for 140 patients with Rickettsia conorii infection admitted to 13 Portuguese hospitals during 1994-2006 with documented identification of the rickettsial strain causing their infection. Results. A total of 71 patients (51%) were infected with the Malish strain of Rickettsia conorii, and 69 (49%) were infected with the Israeli spotted fever (ISF) strain. Patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (40 [29%]), hospitalized as routine inpatients (95[67%]), or managed as outpatients (5[4%]). Death occurred in 29 adults (21%). A fatal outcome was significantly more likely for patients infected with the ISF strain, and alcoholism was a risk factor. The pathophysiology of a fatal outcome involved significantly greater incidence of petechial rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, obtundation and/or confusion, dehydration, tachypnea, hepatomegaly, leukocytosis, coagulopathy, azotemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated levels of hepatic enzymes and creatine kinase. Some, but not all, of these findings were observed more often in ISF strain-infected patients. Conclusions. Although fatalities and similar clinical manifestations occurred among both groups of patients, the ISF strain was more virulent than the Malish strain. Multivariate analysis revealed that acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia were most strongly associated with a fatal outcome.

KW - GENE

KW - IDENTIFICATION

KW - ISRAEL

KW - EXPRESSION

KW - MEDITERRANEAN SPOTTED-FEVER

KW - HUMAN-DISEASE

KW - PROTEIN

KW - COMPLEX

KW - BOUTONNEUSE FEVER

KW - CELLS

U2 - 10.1086/590211

DO - 10.1086/590211

M3 - Article

VL - 198

SP - 576

EP - 585

JO - Journal of Infectious Diseases

JF - Journal of Infectious Diseases

SN - 0022-1899

IS - 4

ER -