Historical outline of iron mining and production in the area of present-day Poland

Paweł Wrona, Zenon Różański, Grzegorz Pach, Adam P. Niewiadomski, João Pedro Veiga

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The article presents the history of iron ore mining and production in present-day Poland and takes into account mining and production techniques and the influence of mining on the development of the surrounding areas. Examples of development are presented for the most important iron ore mining centers established since the period of the so-called Roman influences—Lower Silesia in the region of Tarchalice and the Świętokrzyskie region in the area of Góry Świętokrzyskie (Świętokrzyskie Mountains). The oldest traces of underground iron ore mining in Poland date back to the 7th–5th century B.C., and iron production dates back from the 1st century B.C. in the Częstochowa region where economically significant iron ore exploitation started in the 14th century and lasted until the 20th century. Studies showed that the development of iron ore mining in today’s Poland was associated with significant events in the country’s history, for example, with the expansion of a network of fortified castles in Silesia or with the industrial revolution. In each case, the increase in iron production resulted in the development and growth of the surrounding areas.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1136
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • History of mining
  • Iron metallurgy
  • Iron ore
  • Mine heritage
  • Mineral resources
  • Mining


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