A possible way of analyzing the immune response triggered by the allograft and the cellular viability is to compare immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, such as those having valve replacement and heart transplantation, respectively. These groups differ in immunosuppression therapy, preparation methods, valve hemodynamics. In the present study, we investigated polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA flanking hypervariable (CA) b regions obtained from valve leaflets taken from patients having valve replacement or heart transplantation and performed histologic analyses of the cells. In addition, we assessed an autograft valve to compare the hemodynamic effects on the cellular composition of the valve leaflet. We conclude that leaflet cellularity of the heart transplantation and autograft patients is superior to that of the valve replacement patients. These differences were consistent with the occurrence of an immune response in the valve replacement group, which was prevented or abrogated by immunosuppressive therapy administered to the heart transplantation group. However, it cannot be excluded that preparation procedures have a long-term effect on the extracellular matrix, leading to deterioration of cell adhesion and homing conditions.