Highly Effective Water Oxidation Catalysis with Iridium Complexes through the Use of NaIO4

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Abstract

Exceptional water oxidation (WO) turnover frequencies (TOF=17000h1), and turnover numbers (TONs) close to 400000, the largest ever reported for a metal-catalyzed WO reaction, have been found by using [Cp*IrIII(NHC)Cl2] (in which NHC=3-methyl-1-(1-phenylethyl)-imidazoline-2-ylidene) as the pre-catalyst and NaIO4 as oxidant in water at 40 degrees C. The apparent TOF for [Cp*IrIII(NHC)X2] (1X, in which X stands for I (1I), Cl (1Cl), or triflate anion (1OTf)) and [(Cp*-NHCMe)IrIIII2] (2) complexes, is kept constant during almost all of the O2 evolution reaction when using NaIO4 as oxidant. The TOF was found to be dependent on the ligand and on the anion (TOF ranging from approximate to 600 to approximate to 1100h1 at 25 degrees C). Degradation of the complexes by oxidation of the organic ligands upon reaction with NaIO4 has been investigated. 1HNMR, ESI-MS, and dynamic light-scattering measurements (DLS) of the reaction medium indicated that the complex undergoes rapid degradation, even at low equivalents of oxidant, but this process takes place without formation of nanoparticles. Remarkably, three-month-old solution samples of oxidized pre-catalysts remain equally as active as freshly prepared solutions. A UV/Vis feature band at max=405nm is observed in catalytic reaction solutions only when O2 evolves, which may be attributed to a resting state iridium speciation, most probably Iroxo species with an oxidation state higher than IV.
Original languageUnknown
Pages (from-to)7203-7213
JournalChemistry-A European Journal
Volume19
Issue number22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013

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