A formação de professores do ensino secundário ao longo do século XX em Portugal – processos e debates

Translated title of the contribution: High School teacher education throughout the 20th century Portugal: procedures and discussions

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Abstract

Como é que a formação de professores do ensino secundário/liceal/médio se processou, em Portugal, em alguns momentos-chave do século XX? Quais foram as principais alterações e como foram debatidas? Tentar-se-á apresentar uma súmula organizada diacronicamente dando voz, sempre que possível, aos próprios educadores. Na impossibilidade de abordar diferentes processos de formação, optouse por especificar algumas etapas mais relevantes da formação inicial dos professores para o ensino secundário em três momentos políticos distintos da História Contemporânea de Portugal, ou seja, durante a Primeira República (1910-1926), na Ditadura Militar e Estado Novo (1926-1974) e, por fim, após o 25 de Abril de 1974 e na atualidade. No longo período de 1926 a 1974 serão sobretudo analisados os anos de consolidação do regime ditatorial e, também, a partir da década de 1960, por corresponderem a fases em que se verificaram alterações muito significativas na educação e nos processos de formação. Ao longo de um século a formação de professores acabou por revelar oscilações, algumas permanências e recuperações cíclicas. No entanto, nunca a certificação escolar dos docentes foi descurada, apesar de todas as alterações verificadas – ela permite integrá-los como funcionários públicos, regula oficialmente o seu trabalho e legitima-o, habilita-os para poderem exercer um papel transformador das novas gerações.

How was the education of high school teachers in key-moments of the 20th century? What were the main changes brought about by these different epochs? How were those alterations discussed? We aim to answer these questions in a chronological summary, where we will try, whenever possible, to give voice to contemporary educators. As it would be impossible to go through all education reforms, we will focus on the most relevant steps of the initial teacher training during three different political periods of the Modern History of Portugal: the First Republic (1910-1926); the Military Dictatorship and the New State (1926-1974); and, at last, the post-revolution years to present times (1974-2017). For the long period between 1926 and 1974, we will focus mainly on the years of the consolidation of the dictatorial regime, and, also, from the 1960s on. These were the two moments when most changes in teacher education were brought about. For more than a century teacher education suffered setbacks, stability, and cyclic recoveries. However, in all those moments, and despite all changes, teaching formal certification was always considered central. A teacher certificate is what makes him a public servant; what officially regulates and legitimates the profession, making teachers able to assume their role as transformers of the generations to come. How was the education of high school teachers in key-moments of the 20th century? What were the main changes brought about by these different epochs? How were those alterations discussed? We aim to answer these questions in a chronological summary, where we will try, whenever possible, to give voice to contemporary educators. As it would be impossible to go through all education reforms, we will focus on the most relevant steps of the initial teacher training during three different political periods of the Modern History of Portugal: the First Republic (1910-1926); the Military Dictatorship and the New State (1926-1974); and, at last, the post-revolution years to present times (1974-2017). For the long period between 1926 and 1974, we will focus mainly on the years of the consolidation of the dictatorial regime, and, also, from the 1960s on. These were the two moments when most changes in teacher education were brought about. For more than a century teacher education suffered setbacks, stability, and cyclic recoveries. However, in all those moments, and despite all changes, teaching formal certification was always considered central. A teacher certificate is what makes him a public servant; what officially regulates and legitimates the profession, making teachers able to assume their role as transformers of the generations to come.
Translated title of the contributionHigh School teacher education throughout the 20th century Portugal: procedures and discussions
Original languagePortuguese
Pages (from-to)7-28
Number of pages22
JournalRevista Internacional de Formação de Professores (RIPF)
Volume2
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2017

Keywords

  • Profissão docente
  • Formação de professores
  • Cultura pedagógica
  • Prática pedagógica

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