Hepatic Steatosis in Patients Coinfected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Hepatitis C Virus: A Meta-Analysis of the Risk Factors

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Abstract

Hepatic steatosis (HS) is frequent in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, occurring in 40%-80%, associating with metabolic and virus-related factors, namely, genotype 3 and viral load. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral treatment seem to be risk factors for HS. Several studies addressed this issue in coinfected patients, with discrepant results. A meta-analysis was performed on the HS risk factors in coinfected patients. Eligible studies were identified through structured keywords including coinfection, HCV, HIV, and steatosis in relevant databases including PubMed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and confidence limits (CIs) were obtained with the random-effects model and the DerSimonian-Laird method. Twelve studies, including 1,989 coinfected patients, were selected. Twenty percent were infected with HCV genotype 3. The overall prevalence of HS was 50.8% (23%-72%). Four studies also included 1,540 HCV monoinfected patients, not showing an increased risk for HS in coinfected patients (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.84-3.10, P = 0.151). In coinfected patients, HS was associated with higher body mass index (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19, P < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.32-4.07, P = 0.003), elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.02-1.61, P = 0.035), necroinflammatory activity (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.11-2.67, P = 0.016), and fibrosis (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.20-2.34, P = 0.003). No associations were found between HS and gender, other metabolic factors (dyslipidemia, glucose, metabolic syndrome), HCV-related factors (genotype, viral load), or HIV-related factors (viral load, CD4 count, antiretroviral therapy, and class of medication). Conclusion: In coinfected patients, HS does not seem to be more frequent than in HCV monoinfected patients and is mostly associated with metabolic factors, such as increased weight, diabetes mellitus, and more severe liver disease. The fact that no associations with HCV factors were found may be due to the small percentage of genotype 3-infected patients. (HEPATOLOGY 2010;52:71-78)
Original languageUnknown
Pages (from-to)71-78
JournalHepatology
Volume52
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2010

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