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Novel nature-based engineered functional materials combined with sustainable and economically efficient processes are among the great challenges for the future of mankind. In this context, this work presents a new generation of versatile flexible and highly conformable regenerated cellulose hydrogel electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and self-healing ability, capable of being (re)used in electrical and electrochemical devices. They can be provided in the form of stickers and easily applied as gate dielectric onto flexible indium–gallium–zinc oxide transistors, decreasing the manufacturing complexity. Flexible and low-voltage (<2.5 V) circuits can be handwritten on-demand on paper transistors for patterning of conductive/resistive lines. This user-friendly and simplified manufacturing approach holds potential for fast production of low-cost, portable, disposable/recyclable, and low-power ion-controlled electronics on paper, making it attractive for application in sensors and concepts such as the “Internet-on-Things.”.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2001166
JournalAdvanced Electronic Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • cellulose
  • electrolyte-gated transistors
  • electrolytes
  • logic gates
  • paper electronics
  • recyclability
  • self-healing


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