HBM4EU Diisocyanates Study-Research Protocol for a Collaborative European Human Biological Monitoring Study on Occupational Exposure

Kate Jones, Karen S Galea, Bernice Scholten, Marika Loikala, Simo P Porras, Radia Bousoumah, Sophie Ndaw, Elizabeth Leese, Henriqueta Louro, Maria João Silva, Susana Viegas, Lode Godderis, Jelle Verdonck, Katrien Poels, Thomas Gӧen, Radu-Corneliu Duca, Tiina Santonen, Hbm Eu Diisocyanates Study Team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


Diisocyanates have long been a leading cause of occupational asthma in Europe, and recently, they have been subjected to a restriction under the REACH regulations. As part of the European Human Biomonitoring project (HBM4EU), we present a study protocol designed to assess occupational exposure to diisocyanates in five European countries. The objectives of the study are to assess exposure in a number of sectors that have not been widely reported on in the past (for example, the manufacturing of large vehicles, such as in aerospace; the construction sector, where there are potentially several sources of exposure (e.g., sprayed insulation, floor screeds); the use of MDI-based glues, and the manufacture of spray adhesives or coatings) to test the usability of different biomarkers in the assessment of exposure to diisocyanates and to provide background data for regulatory purposes. The study will collect urine samples (analysed for diisocyanate-derived diamines and acetyl-MDI-lysine), blood samples (analysed for diisocyanate-specific IgE and IgG antibodies, inflammatory markers, and diisocyanate-specific Hb adducts for MDI), and buccal cells (micronucleus analysis) and measure fractional exhaled nitric oxide. In addition, occupational hygiene measurements (air monitoring and skin wipe samples) and questionnaire data will be collected. The protocol is harmonised across the participating countries to enable pooling of data, leading to better and more robust insights and recommendations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8811
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jul 2022


  • Biological Monitoring
  • Biomarkers
  • Environmental Monitoring/methods
  • Humans
  • Isocyanates/analysis
  • Mouth Mucosa
  • Occupational Exposure/analysis


Dive into the research topics of 'HBM4EU Diisocyanates Study-Research Protocol for a Collaborative European Human Biological Monitoring Study on Occupational Exposure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this