Graphene Oxide, Carbon Nanotubes, and Polyelectrolytes-Based Impedanciometric E-Tongue for Estrogen Detection in Complex Matrices

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Abstract

Currently, it is necessary to maintain the quality of aquifers and water bodies, which means the need for sensors that detect molecules as emerging pollutants (EPs) at low concentrations in aqueous complex solutions. In this work, an electronic tongue (e-tongue) prototype was developed to detect 17β-estradiol in tap water. To achieve such a prototype, an array of sensors was prepared. Each sensor consists of a solid support with interdigitated electrodes without or with thin films prepared with graphene oxide, nanotubes, and other polyelectrolytes molecules adsorbed on them. To collect data from each sensor, impedance spectroscopy was used to analyze the electrical characteristics of samples of estrogen solutions with different concentrations. To analyze the collected data from the sensors, principal components analysis (PCA) method was used to create a three-dimensional plane using the calculated principal components, namely PC1 and PC2, and the estrogen concentration values. Then, damped least squares (DLS) was used to find the optimal values for the hyperplane calibration, as the sensitivity of this e-tongue was not represented by a straight line but by a surface. For the collected data, from nanotubes and graphene oxide sensors, a calibration curve for concentration given by the 10PC1×0.492−PC2×0.14–14.5 surface was achieved. This e-tongue presented a detection limit of 10−16 M of 17β-estradiol in tap water.
Original languageEnglish
Article number481
Number of pages18
JournalSensors
Volume24
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2024

Keywords

  • 17β-estradiol
  • complex matrices
  • e-tongue
  • emerging pollutants
  • estrogen
  • graphene oxide
  • impedance spectroscopy
  • layer-by-layer films
  • polyelectrolytes
  • principal components analysis

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