Nanotechnology has prompted researchers to develop new and improved materials aimed at biomedical applications with particular emphasis in diagnostics and therapy. Special interest has been directed at providing enhanced biomolecular diagnostics, including SNP detection gene expression profiles and biomarker characterisation. These strategies have focused on the development of nanoscale devices and platforms that can be used for single molecule characterisation of nucleic acid, DNA or RNA, and protein at an increased rate when compared to traditional techniques. Also, several advances have been reported on DNA analysis in real time, at both high resolution and very high throughputs, suitable for biomedical diagnostics. Here, we shall provide a review of available nanotechnology-based platforms for biomolecular recognition, and their application to molecular diagnostics and genome analysis, with emphasis on the use of noble metal nanoparticles for simple and specific analysis systems. Particular focus will be put on those already being translated into clinical settings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clinical Proteomics.